History before Chhatrapati Shivaji Maharaj
History before Chhatrapati Shivaji Maharaj: Chhatrapati Shivaji Maharaj established Hindavi Swarajya in Maharashtra, he died in 1680. After that the career of Marathas – the second Chhatrapati Sambhaji Maharaj Started in 1680. During his reign, Mughal Emperor Aurangzeb came to Maharashtra in to conquer the Maratha kingdom.
From that time onwards, the freedom struggle of the Marathas with the Mughals began.Stopped by the death of Aurangzeb in 1707.
During these twenty five years (1682 to 1707 AD) the Maratha Swarajya was led by Chhatrapati Sambhaji Maharaj, Chhatrapati Rajaram Maharaj and Rani Tarabai. After the assassination of Chhatrapati Sambhaji Maharaj in March 1689, the responsibility of continuing the freedom struggle fell on Rajaram Maharaj. After the death of Rajaram Maharaj in 1700, Maharani Tarabai took over the reins of the war. Successfully completed in 1707.
The period from 1630 to 1707 is called ‘Shivkal’. A brief introduction to the emperors who ruled in ancient times; Because the past history has a special place and importance in the history of the nation.
At the time of the birth of Chhatrapati Shivaji Maharaj, the founder of Hindavi Swarajya, foreign powers were ruling over the whole of India. India was occupied by Adilshahi, Qutubshahi, Nizamshahi in the south and Mughal rule in the north. The Islamic invaders had started their operations six hundred years before that. As a result, there was no such independent Hindu state in the 16th century. The last Hindu state of Vijayanagar was to be completed one hundred years ago.
At the time of Chhatrapati Shivaji Maharaj’s birth, the Adilshahi kingdom was spread over Maharashtra and Karnataka. Chatrapati Shivaji Maharaj broke the shackles of Adilshahi and established Hindavi, Swarajya. Occupied by Adilshahi Karnataka- The region of Maharashtra is covered with mountains and Sahyadri mountain ranges.
There is a beach to the west of Sahyadri. To the east is a wide plateau. Satvahanapurbi. His inscriptions show that Ashoka Maurya’s kingdom was on the south side. He ruled over Maharashtra.His Mahamatra was spreading Dharma in Maharashtra like other regions. The Satavahanas then ruled from the East Sea to the West Sea in the south.
Satkarni, the son of Gautamva, the Satavahana king of Paithan, was mighty and ambitious. He expanded his kingdom. Rise of Satvahana power. The former is considered to be BC 230. The kingdom of Satvahanas was in Western Maharashtra. Its implementation on Maharashtra is mostly. Must have lasted until the third century.
After Satvahana, Wakataka, Kalchuri and Chalukya dynasties ruled over Maharashtra. The Chalukyas of South Konkan Badami may have conquered by the end of the sixth century. Later, in the second half of the 8th century, the Rashtrakutas conquered the South Konkan and established their Mandlik Shilahar there.
The Shilahar dynasty is very important in the history of ancient Maharashtra. His reign lasted for a long time in the region of North South Konkan and near Kolhapur.
During his reign, Sansthan Mandal in North Konkan (a region around Sanjan in Thane district) was handed over by Rashtrakuta Nripati II Krishna to an Arab Mandal called Madhurmat (Muhammad). His descendants ruled the region for three generations. These Arab kings belonged to the Rashtrakutas. It must have been ruled by the Arabs until AD 974. Later, Aparajita defeated them and annexed the region to his kingdom. The end of Aparajita’s career It must have happened in AD 1010.
Maharashtra was prosperous during the Rashtrakutas. In Maharashtra, the Shilahar dynasty ruled in Konkan, Miraj, Kolhapur and Karhad. Shilahar in South Maharashtra was a devotee of Mahalaxmi of Kolhapur. Someshwar is the last Shilahar king of North Konkan.
At the same time, after the Chalukyas of Kalyani. The Yadava kingdom of Devagiri was spread over a wide area in the south. Allauddin Khilji for material greed on the prosperous kingdom of Devagiri nvaded in AD1294. Khilji defeated Ramdevrai, the king of Devagiri Taken to Delhi. When the Yadavs of Devagiri were in trouble, the Kakatiya kings of Warangal seized both Ballari and Anantapur districts of the Yadav kingdom.
The Hoysalas captured the forest-inhabited province of the Yadavas. None of them rushed to the aid of the Yadavas to resist the Hindu Raja’s attack on Devagiri. On the contrary, when the Muslims invaded the Devagiri kingdom, they did a selfish job of breaking its shackles.
None of them belong to the Hindu king They did not understand that it was their duty to stop the attack on religion and freedom by the Muslims. In time, Muslim chiefs invaded the three kingdoms mentioned above. The gods looted. Wives were kidnapped, some Hindus were forcibly converted. Due to the divisive attitude of the Hindus, the Hindu kings of the south could not unite. As a result, the lone victims fell victim to Muslim aggression.
On the orders of Allauddin, his chief Malik Kafur conquered Devagiri State Khalsa in 1392. But Ramdev’s son-in-law in 1315 Harpaldev took Devagiri again. Then Malik Kafur attacked Harpaldev, captured him and took him to Delhi and killed him. During the Yadava period, when the Chalukya kingdom existed in Ballari and Anantapur areas, Vijay Dhwaj became the king of that Chalukya dynasty.
Chhatrapati Shivaji Maharaj was born in the Bhosle clan. The original male of this family, Sujan Singh, belongs to the Shisode dynasty of Udaipur. Around 1334, he descended from the north to the south to try his luck, and under the patronage of Hassangangu, a native of the Bahamani dynasty. Emperor Mohammad Tughlaq came from Delhi to defeat Hasangangu.
Invaded the South in 1346. That In the battle between the two, Sujan Singh and his son Dilip Singh performed a great feat.In 1347, Hassangangu took the name Allauddin Bahman and established the Bahamani kingdom at Gulbarga. Kelly. ‘ At that time, he gave 10 villages in Devagiri province as landlords to Sujan Singh. Later, Sujan Singh’s family flourished in the Bahamani kingdom. Sujan Singh died in 1355. His son Dilip Singh became the head of the family.
Dilip Singh’s son Siddhaji was a dutiful man. He sacrificed his life to defend the Bahamani power. From the generation of his son Bherav Singh alias Bhosaji, the nickname “Bhosale” became common in these families – from Bhosaji’s descendants to Bhosale – Ranakarna Singh and Shubhkrishna Singh are Bhosaji’s great-grandchildren.
In the year 1469, Bahamani Wazir Mohammad Gawan launched a military campaign to conquer South Konkan. Karnasingh had joined the expedition along with his son Bhim Singh. On the way down to Konkan, we came across a fort called Khelna alias Vishalgad. The Bahamani forces began to bet on efforts to take it.
But this remote fort in the rugged range of the Sahyadri mountains could not be easily conquered by attack. After all the efforts of the Bahamani army were over, Karnasingh and Bhimsingh’s father and son fought an innovative tactic.
He climbed the cliff with the help of a horse and captured the fort. The battle on the fort fell on Rana Karnasingh Dharatirthi. But his efforts led to the conquest of the toy fort at the entrance to the South Konkan. Therefore, the Bahamani Sultan praised Karnasingh. Bhimsingh and gave him the book “Raja Ghorpade Bahadur” and Mudhol and 84 nearby villages as Jahagir. (1469) From that time onwards, the Bhosle dynasty got the name Ghorpade.
After the establishment of Muslim rule in Maharashtra, thousands of Muslims came to the south during the reigns of Khilji, Tughlaq and Bahamani. It had Sufi calendar, Peer, Fakir. Sufis established monasteries, dargahs and mosques in various places on the strength of the royal palace. At that time, Dabhol, ‘Iraqi, Iranian, Arab and Negro fighters, diplomats and Auliya descended to the south with every ship that landed at Chaul. A similar commotion was going on in the south from Delhi.
The Bahamani sultans employed Muslims from Iran (Persia), Turkey, Central Asia, Arabia, and Afghanistan. As a result, a power struggle broke out between the Deccan and the foreigners. Moreover, most of the Deccanis are Sunni and most of the foreigners are Shia. Mohammad Gawan, a prominent Bahamian prime minister, was an Iranian.
During the Bahamani period, Sufi monks denigrated Nathpantha. During the next Muslim period, Mahanubhav sects came into discussion. After Namdeo, the Warakari sect also started declining.
The achievements of Dnyaneshwar, Janardan Swami, Eknath, in the fourteenth century brought stability to the deluded mind of Maharashtra. Gurucharitra in the fifteenth century, Eknathi Bhagwat in the sixteenth century and Bhavartha Ramayana became important.
The rise of the Portuguese in the Konkan belt added to the new crisis. However, the battles between the Shahs, their courtiers, the southern Shia and the Sunni, intensified the power struggle. Therefore, the Maratha chiefs got a good opportunity to get the diplomats on their heads. Many Maratha families like More, Mohite, Ghorpade, Ghatge, Jadhav, Bhosale came forward.
When the Bahamani kingdom was overthrown, five kingdoms emerged in its place: –
(1)Imadshahi of Vidarbha (1484-1574)
Founder Fatehullah Imadshahi was the first region to break away from the Bahamani kingdom of Vidarbha and declare its independence. Imadshah is a Brahmin originally from Karnataka who was initiated into Islam. In 1574, the Nizamshahi of Ahmednagar conquered and merged the Imadshahi kingdom.
(2) Adilshahi of Bijapur (1489-1686)
Yusuf Adilshah, the founder, was a Jojian slave of Mahmud Gawan and rose to a high position by his own will. It came from Turkey.
(3) Nizamshahi of Ahmednagar (1490-1636)
Founder Malik Ahmed was a Deccan Muslim and originally a Hindu.In 1490, the state was established at Junnar. In the year 1494, he shifted his capital from Junnar to Ahmednagar (original name Ambanagar) as a defense.
(4) Qutubshahi of Govalkonda (1512 to 1687)
The founder Quli Qutubshahi was an Iranian and a Shia.
(5) Baridshahi of Bidar (1527-1619):
The founder Amir Ali Barid was a Georgian. In 1619, Adilshah conquered Bidar. Ahmed Nizamshah’s son Burhanshah He ascended the throne in 1578. His chief ‘Pradhan Kambarsen was a Brahmin householder. This made it easier for Hindus to join the government service. Babaji Bhosale, a descendant of Shubhkrishna, took up the job of Nizamshahi. From the Nizamshahi Pargana Pandey had got the Jahagiri of Pedgamba. Babajins Maloji and Vithoji. He had two sons.
Maloji Raje Born around 1570-71. Maloji’s wife Umabai is the daughter of Nibalkar of Phaltan. When Maloji came of age, he learned military exercises from his father and father-in-law. At this time Nizam Murtaza Nizamshah was ruling in the city. He took Maloji to him and gave him a stone. Degree of “King”, Panchhazari Manasab and Pune, Supe, Chakan and Shivneri fort to keep the Deshmukh family of Indapur. Honorablely given around 1590.
Bijapur Sardar Dilerkhan marched on the forts under Nizamshah’s control. On that occasion, Maloji defended the Nizamshahi by repelling Dilerkhana. This feat of Maloji is mentioned in the Brihaddishwar inscription.In 1593, Maloji discovered underground treasures. So they expanded their space, renovated the temple of Ghrishneshwar at Eluru and built a lake at the foot of the Shikhar Shinganapur hill. Drinking water was provided and the link was taken. Thus Maloji did many works of public interest so his coats spread everywhere.
As Murtaza Nizamshah was a minor, Malik Amber and Mian Raju’s position in the court increased and a quarrel arose between them. At the end of 1606, Mian Raju revolted. Malojina was killed in the battle of Indapur. (1606) says Shivbharat. After that Vithoji’s death.It must have happened around AD 1612.
Malojini got Deshmukhi from Pune, Supe, Chakan, Indapur.He raised the flag of the Bhosale dynasty by acquiring wealth with might.
Reference : महाराष्ट्राचा इतिहास-मराठा कालखंड (भाग१) (१६३० ते १७०७ इ.) डॉ. वि. गो. खोबरेकर
also read Pratapgad Fort