Introduction of Madhubani painting
Introduction of Madhubani painting
History of Madhubani painting
The Indian epic Ramayana is well known and it is believed that Lord Rama made a painting at the time of his marriage to Sita, the daughter of King Janaka of Mithila to carry the event. The word Madhubani means forests of honey. Furthermore, it is a place in Mithila whose art form has become synonymous with consciousness and color.
Nowadays there is a Madhubani market and most of the painters work in a town like Jitwarpur at a distance of 3 km. Mithila painting and Madhubani painting are interchangeable, although Mithila art is a general term in which paper art, textiles, utensils, plates, fans, and other items are decorative and utilitarian.
The journey of this art can be understood and traced through many years of history and evolution, including the techniques and colors used for painting. In addition, the contribution of artists who initially acted as anonymous housewives and then the appropriate quality for them and the government and other support can be studied to obtain the general history of this art form.
Historical background of Madhubani painting
The past, known as Mithila school painting, resonated in northern Bihar and depicted religious stories in painting. This is commonly known as Madhubani painting, which is done by most women (Anand, 1984). This living art of Madhubani art has been created in some parts of Bihar in India for many centuries; there is no concrete evidence of when it actually started. The first work of art was published in 1934, after the British Civil Servant earthquake in 1934, in the context of the British Civil Servant (Archer, 199).
As soon as the 140.0 Provincial Census Superintendent had the opportunity to visit the area again, he explored Purnia, Darbhanga, and the surrounding areas. This is the conclusion of an article in the art magazine Marg on 19-19. Pupul Jayakar is mentioned in the research on historiography on Madhubani (Neel, 2010) who was very interested in the style of painting. Launching a drought relief program and writing about it in the 1970s and early 1980s. Madhubani noticed when women from villages around Madhubani like Rashidpur, Leherigunj and Harinagar moved the painting across the medium. of the paint as well as the walls.
Art began to reach the middle class and art lovers. Jagdamba Devi and Sita Devi received national awards from the president. This art form is loved by Canadians among Europeans and others. Expo-0, an exhibition in Japan and Asia-22, further established this art form, which ensured the sale of paintings on paper rather than the normal floor or walls of the village. Neil Rekha mentions in his research that art has been mentioned indirectly in regional texts since the 14th century; While trying to find his transformation from folk art to fine art.
Art has become more visible and the upper castes in Bihar have responded well to the popularity of the art form and viewed it as an expression of their cultural heritage. It also notes that the award-winning artists have been recruited from France, Germany, and the United States. These women mainly represented a kind of “girl power” in patriarchal Bihar, although men are also making and printing paintings, some foreign scholars have studied art such as Ericamoser, a German folklorist, Yves Wakod and a French journalist who encouraged others.
Caste women reflect their everyday life in their paintings. The Mithila Museum is located in Tokyo Hasegawa, Japan. Today one can see the art forms of saris, trains, picture galleries, train station walls, and private salons. However, as mentioned, Madhubani’s painting must constantly be protected from the effects of commercialization. But innovation is inevitable, which can be taken as an art form or as traditional art. Going back in time, it should be noted that Mithila is ancient land north of the Ganges.
Writing on the wall People from the Mithila region make pictures on the walls; Murals are generally considered to be Madhubani paintings. These paintings are made on Walls of houses at Jiturpur, Ranti, Darbhanga, Saharsa and Purnia at Madhubani.
In 1967-67-6868, the painting flourished through the efforts of the Minister of External Trade, Shri Lalit Narayan Mishra, Upendra Maharathi and Bhaskar Kulkarni, artist. This is a feminine art that is mostly made by housewives. Maha Savitri Devi of Ranti, Sita Devi of Jitwarpur, Bawa Devi Jha, Jagdamba Devi and Mahasundari Devi are some of the important artists.
“Gopi” or shepherd girl with Radha-Krishna, a popular theme.
The style of painting varies from village to village. The space created by the upper castes, Brahmins and Kayasthas has a distinctive quality. There are a lot of little little little little people out there. The symbols used in the painting are like earthenware pots in a civilized place in the important Indus Valley at Harappa.
Folklore has it that the women of Raja Janaka’s family used to paint on the walls. Urmila (Lakshmana’s wife) painted her image on the wall and During his exile, when he went to the forest with his brothers Lord Rama and Sita Devi, he worshiped him. It is from the Indian epic Ramayana. Sonar, Ahir and Dusadh do the paintings but only the people of the house joined in but over time these things have come down to the field.
When a girl got married, they were given designs in the form of paper that she could use in her new home and also bring new designs. The region of Mithila has been under the domination of Brahmanism and it has an impact on all aspects of life in Mithila. The process of painting has given women a means of expression. These women are natural artists and don’t really follow any rules. Although some artists are well acquainted, many have forgotten them once they are created
The painting on the walls of Mithila’s house is usually carried out on the walls of three places. Ghosain-ba-ghar, the room of the family deity, the Kohbara house; Kohbara Ghar Ka Konian for new-weds, veranda outside Kohbara. Kohbara’s room contains paintings of most of the myths and legends made by the singer with red mineral pigment. There are themes of pictures like Harisauna Piya Ka Chitra made by Vermili depicting the lives of two girls. Ghosain Ghar Ka Picture is also a kind of mural. There is a family pond in the lake and it depicts fish, turtles etc. In the bride’s room, Nayana Yogini has painted four of the articles she has on her head. Corners. The outside veranda has pictures of rural views of the Mithila area.
Figure; In Mahavidya, concepts in Indian mythology are shown; All forms of Goddess Parvati in Hinduism refer to the group of ten aspects called “Adi Parashakti”. Sometimes paintings are made in paper, pots, fans and earthenware. The lack of symmetry in art is portrayed as a symbol of animals and power. The turtle is the symbol of the team, the fish symbolizes fertility, the lotus and the bamboo represent the sex, females and males, respectively. All this is sometimes translated into strange figures with fantastic dimensions with floats.
Techniques of Madhubani painting
The surface of the walls is made of dung or first white-washed plaster on which the paintings are made. The paints were made earlier but now they are supplied from Kolkata and bought from Madhubani Market in Purnia. The colors used are pink, blue, vermilion, and butterfly (Green) Originally made from black sorghum seeds, yellow or turmeric (lime) made from turmeric, mixed with leaf milk, orange in palash flower, safflower flower juice red and bell leaf green. The paintings of the Kayastha families include brown, yellow-ocher, turmeric and myrobalan (harda), madder red and black, which are purchased in modern times and mixed with goat’s milk. White color can be obtained by mixing rice powder In the water.
The soot of the color used to make black is crows, which is extracted by mixing dung and gum in light brown freshwater. When steamed and boiled in water, the skin of the pipe is pink. Blue is obtained from the berry of a medicinal plant called Sikkar. The dark green is parrot green from the plains of Siam Lata and Gulmohar. Can also be extracted from red clay, yellow from pollen but nowadays other organic and mineral dyes are being used.
Madhubani paintings have many color settings: deep red, green, blue, black, light yellow and pink. Red dominates most paintings. Bamboo twigs are used to draw the outline. To fill the color pewter, a small piece of cloth is tied to the hill. Women paint together. One of them draws the leader and the other fills the colors. Young girls help older women. Kayastha families make paper notes of this artwork During the ceremony. It is shared with the same caste from very different villages.
Styles are repeated but with variations, the idioms remain the same. As organic dyes took longer to form, synthetic dyes are now also being used for modern creations as described in Goddess Durga is the favorite deity of Brahmins and Kayasthas. Goddess Kali is an important deity in technical rituals and technology has had a significant influence in creating Arippana and mural paintings. The main purposes used are plants, animals, mainly natural life, other deities include deities, goddesses, lions, fish, parrots, turtles, bamboos, lotuses, whimsical, “swastikas”. These forms vary Used as per law.
Events like thread ceremony, early wedding Formalities, wedding funerals, renovation of temples, pictures of all demands. Paintings have been made both to decorate and sanctify the courtyard and the threshold. Kohbara paintings grow well for weddings. The moon, the palanquin, the tortoise, the fish are all depicted. Furnace paintings or wall paintings are drawn on auspicious occasions. The symbols used in Madhubani paintings have their own significance. Elephant, palanquin represents royalty. The sun and moon represent longevity.
The swan and the peacock are symbols of well-being and peace The lotus symbolizes good luck and femininity, the bamboo symbolizes future lineage and male sex. The deities, the sun and the moon are depicted during the thread ceremony or during the Upanishads. Goddess Durga is depicted in At the time of marriage again sun-moon, bamboo tree, a circle of lotus, parrot, fish, etc. are made. The lotus is female and bamboo is taken as a male symbol.
Parrots, turtles and fish are also important. Parrot lovers are symbols of birds, turtles represent the union of water and lovers. Fish are a symbol of fertility. The sun and moon represent life-saving qualities. Human forms are linear and abstract. Brahmin paintings have bright red and yellows. They portray a particular subject. Lots of red is used and themes in Bhagwat Purana are commonly used. Scenes from the life of India’s favorite Lord Krishna are seen. Other themes include elephants, fish, turtles, stylized tigers, flower types, and more. The paintings do not follow any logic Samples. Figures of animals and birds can be drawn to fill in the blanks.
As already mentioned, Dalit paintings use the themes of their own heroes’ stories and are quality in themselves. These pictures can be understood as a kind of self-expression. According to David Szanton, president of the Ethnic Arts Association, USA (founded in 190), Madhubani art can be transformed into fine art, who believes in writing and studying exhibitions; Due to the combination of tradition and personal expression seen in the work of Ganga Devi (Jain, 1 1997).
Further, David Szanton argues that Madhubani painting should be referred to as Mithila painting which would be a more inclusive term with its new style and lack of Western influence (Neil, 2010). However, the second ideology will always feel that the Kohbara version is the genuine Madhubani and the commercialization of the form is destroying the tradition. Despite all this, the art is evolving over time. Sari, T-shirts, paper stands, bags, home decor and public places as well as traditional surfaces are being painted on clothes like dupattas and palazzos.
Legends of Madhubani art
She is a famous artist of Madhubani art. She brought this art from the rural home to the outside world. He was born in 1 14 1 in. She is from Jitwarpur village in Madhubani, Bihar. He has been honored with State Award in 1969, National Award in 1975 and Padma Shri in 1981. 1984 in 1984 she was awarded the Bihar Ratna. She has promoted art among 1000 people in her village. Her art was discovered by many, including the President and Prime Minister of India! Due to her efforts and commitment, Jitwarpur has developed tremendously. She died in 2005.
Baua Devi is from Jitwarpur in Mithila district of Bihar. In 1966, she drew pictures on the wall. She was born into a Brahmin family and got married at the age of 12 and there was a famine that year. To supplement her family’s income, women in the area began using new means to sell their artists. She was encouraged by Bhaskar Kulkarni who helped her to exhibit Madhubani artwork at the Craft Museum in New Delhi. In 2017, she was awarded the Padma Shri.
Born in 1928 to a Kayastha family in Mithila, Bihar, Madhubani was a painter who took up the art outside India as an expert in the field of Kutchi and drawing. She attended Indian festivals in the United States. She won the National Award for Handicrafts and 1984. Received Padma Shri.
Mahasundari Devi was from Ranti village in Madhubani, Bihar. At an early age, she learned the art of Madhubani from her aunt. She broke social norms like ‘Purd’ and became an active artist in 1961, setting up the Mithila Handicrafts Artists Health Committee. She was awarded the National Award in 1982, the Government of Madhya Pradesh in 1995 and the Padma Shri in 2011. Her art included clay, paper mache, sujani and sikki (grass art). She died in 2013.