Mathura A famous pilgrimage site
Mathura A famous pilgrimage site in India and a district in the state of Uttar Pradesh, it is located at the confluence of the Ganga-Yamuna rivers northwest of Agra. It is situated on the banks of Yamuna at a distance of 58 km. It is the main departure point on the Delhi-Mumbai Central Railway and is located on the Mumbai-Agra National Highway south of Delhi. 145 km Above is a central center.
Govindji (Shrikrishna) Temple is one of the ancient Saptapur and Mathura has been important since ancient times due to its development in various fields like religion, philosophy, art, language, literature, etc. The region around it was called Vrajamandal. In time, this region was known as Shursen Janpad.
Mathura was the capital of this district. Different names like Madhura, Madhupur, Madhupuri, Madhupika, Madhupattana are found in ancient literature. The name Madhura or Madhupuri may have originated from a giant named Madhu. The forest around Mathura was formerly called Madhuban. Five km southwest of the existing Mathura. The opinion that the above Maholi should be Madhuban has now become universal.
Mathura is known in the Harivansh as well as in the Garuda Purana as a glorious city. In it, Mathura is called Yamunatatisthit. Dasharathi Rama’s brother Shatrughan defeated Madhuputra Lavana and established the city of Mathura. It is possible that this place has undergone many changes since then. Trade routes and highways leading to Magadha used to come together in Mathura in ancient times, hence Indraprastha, Shravasti, Kaushambi, Vaishali etc. Mathura had trade and cultural ties with the cities.
There is a lot of information about Mathura in ancient literature. Mathura is mentioned in the travelogues of the Greek traveler Mogastinis, the Chinese traveler Fahian, Yuanchwang, as well as Ptolemy, Al-Viruni, etc .; However, the ancient history of Mathura is replete with myths and legends.
In ancient times, Mathura was ruled by both Soma and Surya dynasties. The Yadava dynasty ruled for a long time. The reign of Lord Krishna in this dynasty is famous and Krishna freed Mathura from the tyranny of Prajapidak Raja by killing Kansa; However, later Krishna had to leave Mathura with all his relatives. He founded a new city, Dwarka, and lived there with Balarama. The region was later incorporated into the Mauryan Empire. After Maurya, the Shung dynasty ruled (185-73 BC). During the Shunga period, Mathura was attacked by foreigners.
After that it went to Mathura under the rule of Saka-Kushans (73 BC-220 BC). Since then, Mathura has been known in reliable sources for its Kushan inscriptions and mudras. They include Ranjuvul, Shondas etc. The names of the Kshatraps are found on the mudras. Apart from this, a lion-headed pillar of that time has been found and the article on it clearly mentions that the Stupa and Sangharam were built in Ranjuvula’s car-kirdi.
In the carved article of Shondasa, it is written that his treasurer created a pool, a coupe and a rest. After that Mathura came under the rule of Nagavanshi kings. Many citizens of Mathura put the word ‘Dutt’ next to their name. During the time of the Nagas, the Shaivite sect spread and Shwetambar Jains also held a meeting under the chairmanship of a teacher named Skandil. Later the Gupta dynasty (321-555) ruled over Mathura.
During the Gupta period, a Chinese traveler named Fahiyan visited the place and mentioned the influence of Buddhism. According to most foreign travelers, Mathura is called Devtanagar and worship of Vasudeva Krishna is prevalent there. In the fifth century, Mathura was invaded by the Hunas and Buddhist stupas, jinalayas and Hindu temples were destroyed. Later, during the reigns of Harshavardhana (c. 606-647) and Gurjar Pratihar (c. 8-11th century) and Gahadwal, there was not much progress in the field of culture; But the worship of Buddhism, Jainism and Hinduism was still going on.
Mahmud Ghazni’s invasion of India in 1017 destroyed the temples here. Muhammad Ghori then invaded Kanauj in 1193 and defeated Jaichand. Then Mathura first came under Muslim execution; Later, during the Peshwa period, except for a short period of Maratha’s rule (until 1802), Mathura was under Mughal rule. Due to the thirst of Salbai in 1818 between the British and Bajirao II, the Marathas came under British rule. As a result, Mathura came under British rule.
Mathura was ruled by various dynasties for a long period from Maurya to the British. During the Shung-Kushan and Gupta periods, fine arts developed in Mathura. Sculpture along with other arts developed more during the Kushan period and so on. C. Until the seventh century, Vedic, Buddhist and Jain religions were popular. His artifacts have become abundantly available in excavations.
The first archaeological survey of Mathura was conducted by Alexander Cunningham during the British period. Subsequently, various excavations were carried out by various universities as well as the Archaeological Department of the Government of India. Most of the remains found in the excavations have been kept at the Archaeological Museum in Mathura and the Curzon Museum, while some have been kept at the National Museum in Delhi and the Museum in Lucknow.
Of the remnants here, very few are in good condition; However, among the available remains are more specimens of Kushan architecture and there were six stupas. Among them, there were two Jain stupas (temples) at Kankali Tila and four Buddhist stupas at Jamalpur (Huvishka Vihar), Bhuteshwar, Katra Keshavdev (Yash Vihar) and Guha Vihar on the banks of Yamuna. Both brick and stone are used in the construction of Buddhist stupas and there is a chauthara under the stupa.
The statement of the stupa is oval elliptical. There was an umbrella at the top and an altar for the procession. The exterior of the stupa was adorned with carvings, carvings, altar walls, and entrances. All four sides of the entrance were through ornate arches. The ornaments include small stupas, Bodhi trees, images of Buddha, statues of Bodhisattva-dikas, stories related to Buddha’s life and sculptures of Jataka stories.
Since most of the sculptures are for the decoration of Buddhist stupas, the artist has focused on making beautiful idols of Yaksha and Yakshi along with the statues of Buddha-Bodhisattvas. The Buddha statues have chakras on the palms of the hands and feet, with a tengul in the middle of the eyebrows on the forehead, and the earlobes are dug much farther than the human palms. The chest is wide and the pajamas of the garments are shown by parallel lines.
The seat is supported by three lion idols. On the back side is the influence of Bodhi tree, Chauridhari Sevika, Yaksha, Yakshi and Buddha. Buddha’s Bhumisparsha, Abhay, Vyakhyan, Dharmachakra-Parivartan etc. There is a mudra and the artists of Mathura sculpture have tried to give maximum form to these idols.
Therefore, the foreign shades, curves and heart forms found in Gandhara sculptures are not seen in these personifications; However, there are some examples of Yaksha-Yakshi worship being prevalent in ancient India. The magnificent stone idol found in the village of Parkham near Mathura. C. E. Most scholars believe that it is from the fourth century. An inscription found in the vicinity of Mathura gives evidence that the worship of Yaksha king Manibhadra was common at that time.