PHULKARI Ancient Textile of Punjab
PHULKARI Ancient Textile of Punjab
Phulkari is a rural tradition of handicraft, literally meaning “work of flowers”, perpetuated by the women of Punjab (north-west India and Pakistan) during the 1st century and early 20th century. Although the textile industry today imitates this art with the help of machinery, the flower work has almost disappeared in its original form, due to the partition of India and Pakistan in 1947, which also had a dramatic effect on divided Punjab. For obvious socio-economic reasons (schooling, lack of interest in manual work, profit-making, industrialization …).
In ancient times, the Jats who migrated from Central Asia probably brought it to the Indian subcontinent, Phulkari was a part of every important moment of local life (marriage, birth, religious functions …). For a girl who is on the path to becoming a woman, the completion of the phulkari is an important step, usually for the family to use it for their own use. Techniques and patterns were not documented but were transmitted by word of mouth.
Therefore, each regional group was recognizable for its uniquely filled work. The word Phulkari usually refers to a head covering or embroidered shawl worn by women in Gurudwaras (Sikh temples). These traditions are often associated with Sikh heritage, but as they are common to both Hindus and Muslims, they appear to be more geographically specific than religiously specific.
“Phulkari Bagh” refers to a geometric, patterned surface – damn the Mughal garden plan. Today, a simple and sparse embroidered headcloth known as a “veil” is called “phulkari”, while heavily embroidered garments used for formal purposes are referred to as “phulkari garden”.Made of rough, cotton material known as “khaddar”, the ground fabric is usually a reddish-brown color. This one shade is considered good and is used in weddings and other religious and special ceremonies.
The embroidery is done in a soft, incredible silk floss called “Pat”.
The traditional palette of colors will include white, gold, orange, green and crimson.
The actual origin of the Phulkari Stitcher is a constant discussion.Some sources attribute the Jat community in southeastern Punjab. According to Ibsen, the Hindu Jat, which was conquered by Mummaden After the victory, the ground fabric was seldom covered with embroidery, which was traditionally Instead of matching the surface of the fabric.
The threads embroidery work was always made on cotton fabric (khaddar) whose thread itself was hand-spun, bent and dyed with natural colors. The quality was evaluated according to the fineness and regularity of its surface. Khaddar can be of four colors, white is given to adult women or widows while red is associated with youth and is by far the most widespread tone. It is worth noting that the earliest pieces of red (using Mader) cotton cloth were found in Punjab and they date back to the Harappan period (Bronze Age).
The black and blue colors were kept for the shawls worn every day as they were preventing the appearance of stains and dirt. The entire khaddar was always made up of two or three strips that were approximately 50 cm wide. Depending on the region, the strips were sewn before or after embroidery. It seems that West Punjab (Pakistan) was later joined. This gives an explanation of the slightly distorted designs that can sometimes be found on some pieces of this origin. It is important to note that Punjab, famous for its cotton cultivation, was a very suitable part for the local production of khaddar.
This excavation was done on the right side of the cliff, which had a floss of silk thread called pat. Most of the time the silk was imported from Afghanistan, Bengal or China and sold by overseas traders, and therefore, Punjabi women have been pressured to decorate the fabric only in that direction. Save as much silk as possible. Rural life depended on his farm and from time to time men used to go to big cities to sell crops.
Only when they had earned enough money to buy the necessary products for their family were they allowing themselves, for a higher price, some of the husband’s leather that they give to their wives. Pat was red, as a symbol of passion, white for purity, golden or yellow for desire and abundance, green for nature and fertility, blue for cruelty, red energy and blue for peace in blue, orange and orange energy with a mixture of desire and divine energy. However, although symbolism played an important role, these colorful harmonies were also created to the liking of the embroiderer. Embroidery Phulkari was sometimes made by a woman and sometimes she could work on different parts of the rock or even at the same time. As noted earlier, these pieces were usually made by the bride’s family
However, as with wealthy families, the dowry may contain several dozen florists, while some professional embroidery was sometimes employed. The choice of patterns was partly driven by the bride’s social class. For example, some floral designs in cluster stitch are worn only by lower class people while upper class prefers flowers made with tangled stitches. It is important to note that changing a single thread in the count will affect the final result … It is sometimes easier to measure light colored pit threads than dark ones, sometimes the fabric is dyed only after the embroidery is completed, thanks to some preparations that will give the cotton color but silk Will not be.
If the fact of using flush silk provided beauty to these pieces, it was also a complex problem in the work of the artists as it was not easy to move this brittle and intricate material through the khatar without creating clusters and knots. Like most Oriental countries, embroidery always pointed out the tip of the needle in the direction of the embroidery. This gesture, as well as the energy in which the work was injected, comes from the heart and wanted to go to others.
Darning stitch was the most widely used technique for making Phulkari and the quality of the piece can be measured according to the width of this stitch. The narrowest was the stitches, the best was the piece. Occasionally there were other stitches, such as herringbone stitches, running stitches, holbin stitches, or button hole stitches, to create an unusual design or border. Garden, “garden” Phulkari is called tiger (“garden”) when the embroidery work is done on the entire surface of the khaddar.
Creating a garden requires so much talent and patience (sometimes more than a year) that it is put on a very special occasion. Moreover, the amount of pat needed to achieve such a piece depended on the large cost and thus was a way for families to display their wealth. From a historical point of view, it seems that the bag appeared only in the late 1st century with a passion for phulkari. The flower garden can be considered as a technical culmination. The most commonly used colors of the garden were gold and silver-white. This tone is reminiscent of the wildflowers and grain fields of Punjab but the women wear it under their garden. Flowers and some major types of garden
Therma is a white khaddar from the northern part of Punjab, shared by the Phulkari, Hindu and Sikh traditions and highly appreciated by collectors as a symbol of purity. As a symbol of purity, therma was often worn by elders, women and widows, but sometimes white khaddar was also chosen for political reasons. Pat was usually chosen in a range of bright pink to deep red tones. Cluster sewn flowers, wide triangles covering the forehead as well as the surface of the Chevron Darning stitches were very common therma patterns. Darshan Dwar Darshan Dwar, which can be translated as “Gateway to God”, was not made for other people, but as a temple to thank the gods when a wish is fulfilled. For this reason, the dowry may contain dozens of flowers, but the darshan door has never been made in large numbers. Like other symbolic pieces (e.g. Sanchi Phulkari, see next paragraph) this particular type of Phulkari was made in East Punjab, mainly the non-Islamic part which allowed the development of different representations of human and animal.
Sanchi Phulkari is a symbolic piece describing village life in south-eastern Punjab. The local animals (goats, cows, elephants, big cats, scorpions, peacocks and …) are represented in the movement of wrestlers, farmers, weavers, etc. It had a profound effect on the lives of the local people in the late 19th century. Beyond their aesthetic value, Sanchi Phulkari can be compared to the contemporary media as it describes the life, interests and atmosphere of the old rural people of Punjab. In addition, they were made in a relatively small area (Ferozepur and Bhatinda districts) and require high skills for embroidery.
These are all reasons why they are appreciated by collectors and have a unique place among the different types of Phulkari. Bawan Bagh (or Bawan Phulkari) “Bawan” means “Bawan Bawis” in Punjabi and Bawan Bawis refers to twenty-two different patterns to decorate this piece (the number of patterns can sometimes be less than at least 52). Bawan Bagh (or Phulkari) actually showcases their skills from professional embroiderers and the patterns they can provide to their customers. Bawan Bagh (or Phulkari) explains why this is the rarity of all gardens and Phulkari. The Chopa bride’s grandmother was starting to embroider Chopa as soon as her grandson was born.
Instead of the usual sweetheart stitches, she was using hallbin stitches with the distinctiveness of creating the same design on both sides of the khaldar. This means her grandmother’s desire to make her grandchildren equally happy on both sides of her existence, both in her life and after her death, can be described. The ritual that was performed after the bath, before her marriage, at the same time as the chop was wrapped around the bride and made dry, for this practical reason the chop is larger than the other chopkari.
His khaddar was painted red or orange, a symbol of passion and joy. It is worth noting that the chop was never limited so this joy can be limitless … Pat was always chosen in gold tones to express desire and wealth. The patterns were large triangles distributed symmetrically on both sides of the longitudinal axis of the chop. They were showing that the wedding night had not yet taken place and thus the bride and groom were not physically intimate, indicating that they were being separated at a distance from the principles of men and women. On the other hand these triangles also represent stylized peacocks. Also in other phulkari, some mistakes were made voluntarily in the embroidery work to save the bride from the evil eye (“nazar”).
Truly a perfect piece can attract the envy of others. This principle of keeping the jealousy of others away from showing imperfection is found in many Oriental traditions. For example, some black balls are smeared on the faces of young children for this purpose. The chop was sometimes used to hide and conceal the bride’s dowry, making it invisible to Heveda’s mind and keeping the Nazar away. Sunflower refers to the main pattern of this flower. From a technical point of view, this type of florist is unique because it is the only one that mixes in a relatively small amount of Holben Heel (used to make chope florist) and regular gray flint.
Cody Garden Among their specimens, this tiger consists of small white square chains representing stylized cows. These baskets used as currency in the old days have now lost all their value and using them as ornaments is a sign of humility. From another point of view, the shape of these baskets is reminiscent of the female genitalia and can be a symbol of fertility. Kaudi Phulkari is often worn by women for the purpose of increasing their chances of getting pregnant.
Most of the phulkari displayed today in the phulkari and tiger collections are 50 to 150 years old. A few years ago, they used to buy kitchen utensils from local intermediaries in the villages of Punjab for a few rupees or sell them to traders in big cities like Delhi or Peshawar. Some organizations are working hard to keep the art alive, but nowadays flowers are only made industrially.
They are available in the clothing markets of major cities of Punjab (Patiala, Amritsar …) along with embroidered kurtas and cushions. This tradition of originality is now almost gone, the villages of Punjab have been washed from their best pieces and information on the value of fulkari in the occasional market is now readily available all over the world through the internet. The prices of phulkari and tiger are very high. These pieces have now moved almost entirely from the village to museums and museums like Quai Branley or V&A.
When the entire surface is embossed, it is referred to as a tiger.
Chobe is a design in which the embroidery in the garment appears only on the edges and the edges show the emphasis of the round glass pieces in the embroidery.
These pieces of glass are held in place by a button hole stitch around the perimeter.
One of the most popular designs is Wedge to Tables.
Chili garden (chilli), cucumber garden (cucumber) and cabbage (cabbage) are some examples.
For example, Varida Bagh is embroidered by the bride’s grandmother and is presented to the couple at the wedding. Golden
A lazy structure covers the entire field.Today, this garden is considered a family heritage and is passed on The bride immediately after the wedding ceremony is completed.
Bawan Bagh is derived from the Punjabi word number 52.
This area is divided into 422 to 48 boxes or squares, each with one
The garden refers to the border and the embroidered flowerpot in the center of the fabric on each side.
Traditionally, from the day the daughter was born in the family, work began on her flower.The cultural significance is best illustrated by Kamala Dongarkeri, who wrote, “The value of a young bride attached to a flower cannot be measured as one in the market.
The art, the work, the labor and the skill that has contributed to the creation of the work, but with the dishonest tenderness, affection, and gratitude, which it can at
Good luck to her and the most loving thoughts and prosperity that literally woven into the fabric with every stitch that helped complete the design.
The origin of Phulkari is not fully known due to lack of evidence and documents.
The earliest mention of Phulkari is in Hir Ranjha’s famous literary ballad.
The oldest available article of embroidery is a handkerchief, kerchief, embroidery.Homemade woven and dyed coarse khadi is always embroidered with flowers and bags as it is strong, long lasting and easy to embroider as it is involved in counting.
In the yarn village khadi was woven with a small width and then the two pieces were joined together for width.
A soft unpainted floss called ‘PAT’ was used for silk embroidery.
These silk threads came from Kashmir, Afghanistan and Bengal.
They were painted at Dera Ghazi Khan, Amritsar and Jammu and later distributed throughout Punjab by nomadic tribes. The colors used in Darning Stitch were golden yellow, red, crimson, orange, blue, white, violet, green and dark brown.The design was created on the back of the material depending on the type of motif known, the color of the base material, the stitches made on the work, the area or part of the embroidered base material that can be identified.
i) Chope and Subar are the wedding flowers and are presented to the bride by her maternal relatives during the actual ceremony
ii) Salu – A simple red or dark red khaddar shawl known as salu is used for everyday wear in the house.
iii) Darshan Dwar or Darwaza is a phulkari which is used as a ‘gift’ presentation for religious institutions.
The design is built on a panel, at the entrance of which people pay homage to their deity
iv) Shishandar Phulkari or Chhamas – In South East Punjab (now in the state of Haryana), Phulkars used to wear garments filled with red or brown background with pieces of glass.
v) Sanchi Phulkari – It depicts the real rural life of Punjab where outlines are written in black ink before embroidery.