Social reformer Mahadev Govind Ranade

Social reformer Mahadev Govind Ranade
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Social reformer Mahadev Govind Ranade

Social reformer Mahadev Govind Ranade

Mahadev Govind Ranade: (January 18, 1842 – January 16, 1901). Liberals, social reformers, religious reformers, politicians, economists and visionary men in India. Many times he was called Madhavrao instead of Mahadev. Mother’s name is Gopika. He was born in Niphad village in Nashik district. Marathi and primary English were taught in Kolhapur. Their bodies were plump and their heads were large. People like him because he is calm, tolerant, humble, generous and upright since childhood. He was always playful in industry, polite and truthful. Justice Ranade completed his secondary and higher education in Mumbai. While studying, he studied the history of India and Marathas and also studied many books on other subjects outside the school curriculum. Etc. C. In 1862 B.C. A. Passed the first class in the examination of. B. again with History and Economics subjects. A. (O.) Examined. Seeing his erudition, the professors and scholars began to see his great future. History, Geography, Mathematics, Economics, Logic, English, Essay Writing etc. He began teaching subjects at Elphinstone. M. in 1864. A. Passed the examination and passed the law examination in 1865. This young graduate was included in the Fellows of Mumbai University.

Etc. C. In June 1866, he was appointed by the government to replace the Oriental Translator. He used to write comments on the books that were being published in Marathi at that time. His views on literature, history and sociology are widely discussed. In 1868, he was permanently appointed Professor at Elphinstone College, Mumbai. He was appointed as a Judge or Magistrate in the Pune Judiciary from 1871. At that time, he took the Advocate’s exam. After working in the judiciary for some time, in 1893, Ranade was appointed as a judge in the Bombay High Court. At that time, the position of a judge of the High Court was rare for Indians. On that occasion, the people of Pune celebrated for eight days and were honored by important institutions in Pune. Many felicitations were held and flowers were showered on them. His qualities of diligence, impartiality, in-depth knowledge of jurisprudence and integrity were evident in the work of the judiciary. “It simply came to our notice then,” said Chief Justice Sir Michael Westerp.

Mahadevarai had two marriages. After the death of his first wife at the age of twelve, he got married to Ramabai at the age of 31. He was hailed as a great social reformer. Although he had started a social reform movement, he got married for the second time to an eleven-year-old virgin due to the aggression of his old father. This was a blow to his reputation as a social reformer. Along with Ramabai (1862 – 1924), his life was full of happiness. Ramabai attained harmony with his noble life. Therefore, after Ranade’s death, the autobiography that he wrote, Some Memories of Our Life (1910), was recognized as a beautiful literature in Marathi. Ramabai took over the service of women after her husband’s death. He was closely associated with the Arya Mahila Samaj as well as the Lady Dufferin Fund Committee. Established an institution providing vocational education to women. She was a major inspiration for Pune’s renowned ‘Sevasadan’, an organization working for various types of women’s education. She was also on the Government Textbook Committee four times; She was also the chairperson of the women’s convention. Her work for Indian women is considered important.

In the time of Mahadevrao, ‘Lokhitwadi’ Deshmukh, Vishnushastri Pandit, Jotirao Phule etc. The social reformers had started a movement for reform. Ranade participated in it. In 1862, he wrote a number of articles on social reform in the English section of the newspaper Induprakash. The Widows’ Promotion Board was formed in 1865. The board arranged a widow’s wedding. Traditional Sanatan Dharmis boycotted the advocate of widow-marriage with the permission of Shankaracharya. So I had to suffer a lot. On the occasion of this controversy, Mahadevrao wrote a scholarly essay on Vedas, Smriti, Puranas and history. King Rammohan Roy initiated a fundamental, philosophical transformation in Hinduism. Justice Ranade added his own Dharmachintan to this fundamental Hindu reform movement. The natural merit of religious experience is in the heart of man. When the heart becomes contemplative and free from the bondage of disorder, it receives the light of inner conscience and the experience of the formless, holy universe. Pure moral conscience awakens in him. The thoughts of the saints and the founders of the religion further enrich this experience. Conscious intellect determines the broad moral values ​​of all human beings. Formless, holy, the belief in one God and devotion to Him is expressed in the heart. Therefore, it was believed that the original pure religion of all human beings was the same, his religious, philosophical thought.

After taking the helm of socialism on his shoulders, he formed two organizations, the Indian National Congress and the Social Council. He laid down a definite philosophy as the basis of the idea of ​​social reform. Political reform, economic reform, religious reform and social reform are all interrelated, so he had a broad view that social life should be considered holistically. He asserted that it was the duty of man in the new age to establish equality and justice among human beings without regard to race or religion. For that, human intellect must first be freed from the superstition of tradition and the bondage of scriptures. His conscientiousness must come from his conscience. Intelligence should be rooted instead of blind theism. Human dignity should be based on the principle of equality. He said that such a high cosmic divine principle and the pure inspiration of that divine principle in the human heart is the secret at the root of all religions. He and many of his friends founded the Prarthana Samaj in Mumbai on the lines of the Brahmo Samaj established by King Rammohan Roy in Bengal, in order to free man from idolatry and rituals and increase the attraction of man’s conscience towards higher religions. He wrote an essay in English entitled ‘Monotheism’ in support of the cult’s principles, practices, and rituals. Eknath’s Bhagavat Dharma, the Warakari sect, had a profound effect on Mahadevrao’s mind. He asserted that a prayer society is born to spread devotion.

Justice Ranade moved to Pune in 1871 and took over the helm of the public meeting in Pune; The work of the public meeting took the form of a political movement. He was the first to lay the foundation for progressive legislative politics in India. Under his guidance, the secretary of the public meeting, Ganesh Vasudev Joshi, the public uncle, did a great job. Etc. C. In 1890, the debate over social reform took a provocative form. The ‘Sarvajanik Sabha’ in Pune, founded by Ranade in 1870, split and split. Lo. Bal Gangadhar Tilak and his associates established their majority and drove away Justice Ranade’s followers. Then in 1893, Ranade started a new organization called ‘Deccan Sabha’ in Pune. His political philosophy is clear in the circular he issued at that time. He clarified that the purpose of the political movement is public education. Creating citizenship with the virtues of self-respect and self-reliance is the first step in politics. It takes a long time to acquire these qualities. He pointed out that giving up caste hatred is an important part of liberalism.

Ranade and Joshi started the work of propaganda and organization of Swadeshi. Ranade gave a scientific analysis of India’s economic decline and development with two lectures. Ranade advocated the principle of protective levy to bring about an industrial revolution in his country. He explained how the British government was against India’s economic development and laid the foundation of Hindi economics.

There was a great famine in Maharashtra between 1874 and 1976. He then surveyed the economic condition of farmers in Maharashtra through a public meeting. In that survey, the government’s policy is the main reason for the loss of farmers, he explained. The demand for a responsible state system was submitted to the Parliament of England on the ground that the economic condition of the common people would not improve unless the people received a responsible state system. The petition was signed by thousands of people. In 1877, Queen Victoria was conferred the title of Empress of India at a court in Delhi. On that occasion, the public meeting gave a letter of commendation to the Queen and also submitted an application for the demands of the Hindi people. The British government at the time was deeply skeptical that Ranade’s politics should be aimed at revolting. The government kept a close eye on all the transactions of the ranas; But in the absence of clear evidence, Ranade was appointed a member of the council in 1885 and appointed to the finance committee. The Congress was formed in 1885. Ranadas played a major role in this establishment. Gopal Krishna Gokhale adopted Ranade’s motto and policy in politics. In a 1900 speech, Gokhale said, “I have learned wisdom from Ranade’s feet.”

The Ranads established the Industrial Council in 1890. In his introductory speech at that time and in subsequent speeches, he gave many instructive lectures on Hindi economics. He argued that poor India should have an independent economy. Justice Ranade was the President of the first Marathi Writers’ Conference (May 11, 1878) which became the Gangotri of the Marathi Literary Conference.

Generally from 1894 onwards for the next five-six years. Ranade had read his research papers on the history of Marathas from various institutions and meetings. He further wrote ‘Rise of the Maratha Power and Other Essays’ [m. Shi. The Rise of Maratha Power (1964)]. In addition to this writing, he intended to write the next two volumes on the expansion and decline of Marathi power; But due to his death (1901) it could not be completed.

References :

1.Brown, Mackenzie, The Nationalist Movement: Indian Political Thought from

Ranade to Bhave, Bombay, 1972.

2. Gopalkrishnan, P. K. Development of Economic Ideas in India, Poona, 1942.

3. Karve, D. G. Ranade : The Prophet of Liberated India, Poona, 1942.

4. Kolaskar, M. B. Ed. Religious and Social Reforms, Bombay, 1902.

5. Mankar, G. A. Mr. Justice M. G. Ranade : A Sketch of the Life and Work.

6. Parvate, T. V. Mahadev Govind Ranade, Bombay, 1963.