Tribal Communities in India

Tribal Communities in India
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Tribal Communities in India

Tribal Communities in India

Relatively speaking, a tribe is a small community and has its own autonomous political institutions; Usually a tribe is economically backward. It is usually accompanied by a prehistoric type of economy, lack of revenue, and extremely simple technology. The relationship dominates the social institutions of the tribe.

Tribal communities in general have a ‘magico-animistic type of religious belief and an egalitarian social system. The near absence of social stratification has a high level of ‘gender equality’. Since tribal communities exist in relative isolation, they are not only culturally specific but also ethnic The specific reason is that it is forbidden to interact with other communities. “

There are about 500 tribes in India. They do not have different ethnic backgrounds and cultures, occupations, religions, traditions, so there is a defined problem among Indian tribals. In India, people of different castes cannot be identified because of their diverse nature in specific definitions or situations.

Andre Beatile rightly said that the fundamental problem in the definition of tribe is that it is very difficult to differentiate between farmer and tribe. DN Majumdar defined tribals as “a group of families whose names, commands and political and economic control over a piece of the country can be referred to as general dialects and instincts.”

W. J. The tribes defined by Perry are the so-called tribal peoples who speak a common dialect and live within certain geographical boundaries. But the problem of defining tribals in India is their different circumstances and realities. That is why one definition of tribals cannot take all the tribes of India under its umbrella because:

1) If we take geographical and political autonomy as the basis of their definition, there are many tribes like Rajasthan (Meena), Jharkhand, Bihar, MP. There is no political and geographical autonomy. They are part of mainstream society, so the definition of geographical isolation cannot include them.

2) D.N. The Majumdars recognize a feature, namely, they believe in ‘ancient religion’ but most tribes have adopted Hindu, Christian and Islamic lifestyles and no longer believe in their primitive religion. Therefore, this is not the definition Include these types of tribes.

3. Some sociologists consider economic and business criteria as food collectors. Hunters, farmers and mainly based on the barter system which means big Urbanization, industrialization and the number of tribals with a lot of parts Market economy cannot be included in this definition.

4. Other definitions identify tribals as indigenous-dialects but most people The tribals in India speak Hindi and other languages ​​in large numbers so they cannot be This includes Due to these defined difficulties mentioned above after independence, the President has been given the right to identify any nation as a tribe and it is called ‘Scheduled Scheduled Tribes’.

(B) Geographical spread of Tribal Communities in India

The geographical spread among the tribals is not uniform and concentrated but it is extremely diverse and scattered. Many sociologists / anthropologists are trying to classify their geographical spread but B.S. The classification of caves has been widely accepted which divided the geographical spread of the tribes into four zones.

– Northeast Division
– North section
– Central section
– South Division

Northeast – It includes the lower Himalayan tribes which separates them from the plateaus of Garo, Jaintia and Mishmi hills. .

Northern Division – This area includes the upper part of the Himalayas and the tribals separated from the hills of Rajmahal on the Ganges belt. For example, Khas, Lushai, Gaddi, Bakarwal, Lepcha, Bhoksha, Tharu are the tribal tribes.

Central Division – This region consists of the lower tribes of MP, Chhattisgarh, South Rajasthan, North Maharashtra, Odisha, Jharkhand, the lower Ganges and the upper Narmada. It is about 1% of the total tribes in India. For example, Bhil, Gond, Santhal, Birhor, Oraon, Kol, Munda, Khond, Kharia etc.

Southern Division – This zone includes the tribals living in the lower reaches of the Krishna River up to Kanyakumari. Karnataka, Kerala, A.P. Of tribal T.N. Are included. For example, Chenchu, Kota, Koya, Toda, Kurumba, Kadar etc. In addition to these four divisions, Leela Dubey discovered another region comprising the tribes of Andaman and Nicobar. Lakshadweep – Jarvas, Onge, Sentinel, Andamanese etc.

(C) Colonial police and tribes

Although there is such a discussion among sociologists that tribals are ‘autonomous or separate communities’ (Warrior Alvin) or ‘backward Hindus’ (G. S. Gurye), there is no denying that they came into contact with a larger community during the British period. Since the main objective of the colonial regime was to exploit the resources of the country for revenue generation, this objective hindered them in the life of the tribals. In 1955, various committees and policies were formed in which Lord Dalhousie promulgated the first forest policy in which timber was declared as state property and its felling was a criminal offense.

Gradually, with the establishment of British rule, there began a phase of aggression and appropriation. These were direct attacks and infiltrations in tribal areas. Development has made it even easier:

(1) ‘Railways and Roadways’ is a new system of administration with the British Developed. So,

(2) Due to the destruction of political autonomy of the tribals, natural resources were plundered

(3) Displacement and conflict with tribals. So, rail and road routes were selectively developed to connect the mining cities with the post cities. This led to the death of tribal autonomy. Announced British policies on the forest

(4) Forest as national property and thereby by law Regular use of forest products and products. Among the tribals, the land was never privately owned. They had no ownership. Had the right to exercise an existing right but did not own. Made by the British

(5) Institution of private property. They also created one

(6) Comprador (Zamindar) class. These landlords became allies of the British monarchy among the tribals.

(7) Ownership was given to these traditional elites. As roads, railways, posts and telegraphs developed

(8) Tribal parganas became very attractive to outsiders.

(9) Appetite was constantly increasing. So, people

(10) Migrated to tribal areas. Through this process, they moved on

(11) market economy private earnings Alcohol production came under control through licensing.

(12) Alcohol is an integral part of tribal life as it is a hedonic lifestyle in the tribal tradition. So, they started buying alcohol, which pushed them

(13) The failure of rains, drought, famine exacerbated the existing crisis, the moneylenders were often cautious people exploiting innocent tribals.

(14) Land alienation. Millions of tribals migrated to Bengal from the small Nagpur area to work as laborers in the Chot Bagh. Thus British policy contributed to ‘marginalization and weakening’. This led to the loss of tribal autonomy.

(15) The Santhal Rebellion was due to the large dispersal of the tribals. The British did not study
Tribal practices, practices and lifestyles before formulating policy.

Since the tribals never owned the land collectively, it was not the policy to register the land. Among the tribals was the practice of moving agriculture. So, they would come back to the same region after 20 years. The British did not find these lands desolate. So, it was declared as government land.

(16) B.D. Sharma tells forest officials how to use it Explain the law in a ridiculous way, which made them paupers. It also shows an intolerant attitude towards forest administrators. All the policies formulated during the British rule were aimed at controlling the forests for economic gain which affected the tribals. In short, we can mention the following:

– Tribals have lost control over their “thick, forest, land”. The financial resources of their livelihood that they controlled for centuries.

– They became part of a larger political unit and therefore lost their political autonomy.

– For the first time they came in contact with outsiders who exploited them in multiple ways.

– On the one hand, cultural contact with outsiders created cultural problems and on the other hand, they became aware of their exploitation and rights.

D) The question of integration and autonomy

The growing dissatisfaction and rebellion among the tribals drew the attention of the British to this issue. Anthropologists disagree and debate about tribal policies, with two conflicting school principals:

– The policy of segregation (separatist approach) – supported by Warrier Alvin, Hemandorf and other Western anthropologists who believed that tribals never participate in Indian society and have a habit of living independently and autonomously.

Alvin was the chief adviser to both the British government and Nehru on tribal issues. He identified the problem of the tribals by contacting the common people. The advanced lifestyle of the common people is giving an opportunity to exploit the backward tribals. So, in his view, this measure is left to the re-isolation of the tribals, he rewarded national parks, sanctuaries etc. where only the tribals should be allowed to live. So, He thought that the exploitation of the tribals could be stopped by ‘re-segregation’.

– The policy of integration – The policy of secession was strongly opposed by the Indians who supported the policy of ‘secession’. G.S. Ghurye and other nationalists Anthropologists tried to build a “tribal zoo” on Alvin, so that missionaries could convert them, and they believed that the tribes were “backward Hindus” and were always part of a larger Hindu community, so they had to be brought there.

Mainstream so that their backwardness can be overcome and it should become a big part of the society. Ghurye was supported by those who controlled capital and were willing to invest in tribal areas. In it, he argued that the benefits of isolating and mobilizing tribals would be denied.

He said it was a national park Only work as a national zoo. So, the tribals will return to a permanently backward state. Similarly, two options emerged on tribal issues. Attempts were finally made to reconcile these two views after independence. State On the one hand, they adopted a policy of integration which, on the one hand, preserved their cultural identity and, on the other, ensured their development, because:

– If they remain isolated due to their ignorance, they can destroy rich plants And animals, extinct animals, etc. have a big impact on the environment.

– There are many practices, traditions and practices in civil society that are prohibited, such as human sacrifice, animal sacrifice and other degrading and undesirable things.

The above problems and exploitation have had many consequences among the tribals:

– Some tribes joined the mainstream and became a large part of the society. Many tribes, especially in East-East and Central India, came under the influence of Mission aries and converted to Christianity.

– Many tribes felt rebellion and revolt against the administration including 1918 Bhil Rebellion, 1920 Koli Revolt, 1829 Khasi Rebellion, 1831-32 Coal Rebellion, 1855-56 Santhal Rebellion, 1899 Munda Rebellion, 1917-18 Cookie Rebellion. It can therefore be concluded that the impact of the colonial policy was largely exploitative in nature leading to many problems such as poverty, land segregation, displacement and loss of cultural identity; And their uneasiness was reflected in many castes, especially in rebellion and rebellion.

Since the tribals never owned the land collectively, it was not the policy to register the land. Among the tribals was the practice of moving agriculture. So, they would come back to the same region after 20 years. The British did not find these lands desolate. So, it was declared as government land. (16) B.D. Sharma tells forest officials how to use it
Explain the law in a ridiculous way, which made them paupers. It also shows an intolerant attitude towards forest administrators.
All the policies formulated during the British rule were aimed at controlling the forests for economic gain which affected the tribals. In short, we can mention the following:

– Tribals have lost control over their “thick, forest, land”. The financial resources of their livelihood that they controlled for centuries.

– They became part of a larger political unit and therefore lost their political autonomy.

– For the first time they came in contact with outsiders who exploited them in multiple ways.

– On the one hand, cultural contact with outsiders created cultural problems and on the other hand, they became aware of their exploitation and rights.

D) The question of integration and autonomy

The growing dissatisfaction and rebellion among the tribals drew the attention of the British to this issue. Anthropologists disagree and debate about tribal policies, with two conflicting school principals:

– The policy of segregation (separatist approach) – supported by Warrier Alvin, Hemandorf and other Western anthropologists who believed that tribals never participate in Indian society and have a habit of living independently and autonomously.

Alvin was the chief adviser to both the British government and Nehru on tribal issues. He identified the problem of the tribals by contacting the common people. The advanced lifestyle of the common people is giving an opportunity to exploit the backward tribals. So, in his view, this measure is left to the re-isolation of the tribals, he rewarded national parks, sanctuaries etc. where only the tribals should be allowed to live. So, He thought that the exploitation of the tribals could be stopped by ‘re-segregation’.

– The policy of integration – The policy of secession was strongly opposed by the Indians who supported the policy of ‘secession’. G.S. Ghurye and other nationalists Anthropologists tried to build a “tribal zoo” on Alvin, so that missionaries could convert them, and they believed that the tribes were “backward Hindus” and were always part of a larger Hindu community, so they had to be brought there.
Mainstream so that their backwardness can be overcome and it should become a big part of the society.

Ghurye was supported by those who controlled capital and were willing to invest in tribal areas. In it, he argued that the benefits of isolating and mobilizing tribals would be denied. He said it was a national park Only work as a national zoo. So, the tribals will return to a permanently backward state. Similarly, two options emerged on tribal issues. Attempts were finally made to reconcile these two views after independence. State On the one hand, they adopted a policy of integration which, on the one hand, preserved their cultural identity and, on the other, ensured their development, because:

If they remain isolated due to their ignorance, they can destroy rich plants And animals, extinct animals, etc. have a big impact on the environment.

There are many practices, traditions and practices in civil society that are prohibited, such as human sacrifice, animal sacrifice and other degrading and undesirable things.

The above problems and exploitation have had many consequences among the tribals:

– Some tribes joined the mainstream and became a large part of the society. Many tribes, especially in East-East and Central India, came under the influence of Mission aries and converted to Christianity.

– Many tribes felt rebellion and revolt against the administration including 1918 Bhil Rebellion, 1920 Koli Revolt, 1829 Khasi Rebellion, 1831-32 Coal Rebellion, 1855-56 Santhal Rebellion, 1899 Munda Rebellion, 1917-18 Cookie Rebellion. It can therefore be concluded that the impact of the colonial policy was largely exploitative in nature leading to many problems such as poverty, land segregation, displacement and loss of cultural identity; And their uneasiness was reflected in many castes, especially in rebellion.

– If we compare their demographic profile with other societies, it is easy to identify that their population growth rate, age expectancy are very low and hence if not developed or interfered some of them may extinct over the period.
– They are the human resources of the society and if they are underdeveloped, malnourished and diseased, their contribution in nation building cannot be ensured which will halt the growth or prosperity of the country.
– It is important that distributive justice and welfare must be ensured to every individual in the society because in a democratic, socialist and welfare state, any community cannot be left marginalized because of their unawareness. It is against one’s democratic rights. Nehru finally arrived at ‘Panchsheel’ for tribal administration, a policy of integration, in which he tried to synthesis both views. A broad principle of tribal policy was laid down in his famous panchsheel.

According to Nehru Panchsheel:

a. We should avoid imposing anything on tribals. Their traditional arts and culture should be encouraged.
b. Tribal rights in land and forests should be respected.
c. We should train a group of their own people to administer.
d. We should not over administer them or overwhelm them with a multiplicity of schemes.
e. Results should be judged not by statistics or amount of money spent but by the quality of human development.
So, integration policy advocated cultural autonomy for tribal. After independence various schemes and policies were launched. Tribal development approach was parallel to rural development approach.
Initially there was Tribal development programme through tribal development blocks for multipurpose programme outcome. But it only helped in further marginalization.
It was an Area development approach which made Tribal County more attractive to outsiders. In only increased land alienation and exploitation of tribal. From 5th Five years plan, we synthesized Area development and Tribal development programme. Those areas which were overwhelmingly inhabited by tribal, Area development approach were followed. In those areas where tribal were significant but not majority, target group approach was adopted. A special approach was adopted for primitive tribes.Along with this, the sub-plan approach was adopted from 5th Five years plan. Under this, each department was forced to allocate some money to tribal policy. Along with this political autonomy was given to tribal within frame work of the constitution. This was to provide a measure of political autonomy.

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