The father of Indian cinema

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The father of Indian cinema Dadasaheb Phalke

Every day in India,  more than 1 crore viewers watch movies every day, cinematic magazines are published in more than 870 different Indian languages, movies are released in 58 countries, Indian movies are shown in 108 countries, India has been number one in film production . The whole history is interesting and enlightening, how the Qutub Minar of Indian cinema is standing in the mind today.

The father of Indian cinema

The father of Indian cinema

In the early stages, real static pictures appear to be moving .The first experiment was performed by a researcher in Rome in 1640, But this experiment gained real momentum in the late twentieth century. US,
Researchers from France, Britain, and Germany began to make that effort Were.

In 1872, Leland Transford, Governor of California, and a few others
An argument broke out between the friends. When the horse runs fast
and the all four of his legs are lifted momentarily. This whirlwind of controversy is Mybridge  painter’s ears went. He thoughtfully to know the facts horizontal threads on the path of a running horse with 24 photo cameras Built. One end of it was attached to the shutter, so the horse’s legs threaded Photographs were taken.

A series of those 24 photographs by Mybridge By turning the handle with the help of a wooden machine made like a cast Seeing the sliding picture through the hole, the horse ran into Gallup It proved that all four legs are lifted from the ground momentarily, intermittently. Besides, I saw the horse’s tail wagging, this is a concept  of a moving movie! But this is the way to create a moving picture of a scene hundreds of cameras and thousands of photographs would have to be taken considering the current existence of George Eastman in the United States

Cinefilm made in 1889. In the same year the British researcher William Fridge Green developed a camera that could capture this film. This was an important stage. Addison then the kinotograph and kinotoscope It created two separate devices. One began to draw and Another turned the handle to see the movement on the film. Only Only one person at a time could see this through the shaking of this device. Such a device Were installed in the shop. The viewer is amazed to see the movement of the picture Was going. The speed of the pictures would be more or less due to the rotation of the handle This is how the picture works.

In the same year, in 1889, Shri. Mahadev Gopal Patwardhan had painted some parts of the character of Lord Krishna on slides by Madanrao Pitale, a talented engineer from Mumbai. Show those slides with the help of Magic Lantern. It was like watching a movie while watching it. This can be a profitable business, said Shri. Patwardhan realized. With that in mind, they began to prepare.

His son Vinayak J. J. Had completed the course of the School of Arts. Vinayak became proficient in drawing beautiful, beautiful pictures on glass and with the help of Magic Lantern he mastered the art of creating the illusion of a movie. His younger brother Ramchandra was also given this Dadasaheb Phalke

Art achieved. The Patwardhan brothers, with the help of three magic lanterns, started showing the program on the myth of self-painted pictures on slides. The paintings were very linear, attractive and proportionate. He was also performing one such picture on the circus.

He skillfully pursued his game by drawing the right words from the immortal cell and naming it ‘Shambarik Kharolika’. Had done. It was a three-hour single game. It was also accompanied by dialogues, music and songs. So the events were very colorful. This program of ‘Shambarik Kharolika’ continued till 1920, ie seven-eight years after the commencement of film production in India. This meant that their popularity lasted for thirty years. This event is unique in the world. The Patwardhan family has donated six boxes of slides used in it to the National Film Museum in Pune. Some of his experiments have been done by museums. 

In 1895, Edison’s Vitascope made it possible for many viewers to watch animated films simultaneously on a hanging screen. Of course, this moving movie was only a few seconds long. This is the next important stage of a moving movie! The French researcher Lumie also succeeded in developing a device that could shoot and project images. He made a 20-second short film, ‘Lunch Our Ant Lumie Factory’, and sang it privately to some congregations. Seeing his enthusiastic response, the Lumie Brothers made a 50-foot documentary, Charge of the Dragon, and made it public on December 25, 1895, at the Grand Caf in Paris. This is the world’s first film screening. Initially 35 spectators were present. That number grew to two thousand. Seeing this response, the Lumie brothers made similar short films and sent their representatives to some countries to demonstrate them.

A representative of them had come to India. He built the Esplanade Mansion near the Black Horse in Mumbai on July 7, 1896, when the Watson Hotel was located; He played his first game in this hotel. It was advertised in the Times of India. Look at the strange discoveries of this century, the wonders of the world, the movements of living figures in life size. The ticket was kept at Rs. A hundred years ago, these tickets were expensive, but the movement of the pictures was an innovation, so I was very curious. So on the first day, two hundred spectators came.

There was a joke that day. Since the eyes are never used to seeing the movement of the pictures, some spectators fled from the theater in fear of seeing the train engine approaching the screen, while some hid behind chairs. The spectators who ran outside made sure the engine was gone and then they came back inside. The Watson Hotel hosts a week-long movie show. After that, the current Excelsior in Mumbai, the novelty of that time, at the Shedavaja Theater from 14th July to 15th August, from 8 a.m. to 8 p.m. With these small moving pictures, the game was played in a houseful of crowds was attracted.

What was the nature of this moving film? Each of these films was a minute and a half long. A total of 12 films were shown. The child is playing in the garden, he is having breakfast with his parents, the horse is running, the laborers are building the wall, the laborers are leaving the factory, the boatman is rowing, the train is coming to the station, the sea waves are rising, the mulch , The gardener runs to catch him. These were such moving films. It didn’t have any artists, stories, sets, etc. All the filming was done on the spot, all the programs of the moving films ended in fifteen to twenty minutes, but the audience was mesmerized by the movement of the pictures.

Harishvandra Bhatwadekar and Savedada from Mumbai had seen the moving film shown at the Watson Hotel by a representative of the Lumie brothers. Seeing that, Savedada was so impressed that he wanted to make a moving film like this. He had taken over the machinery agency of the Lumie brothers. They had to demonstrate to the shopkeeper how to use the machinery, so they did a little bit. The mechanical information was done. Bhatwadekar had a shop selling photography materials near Kennedy Bridge in Mumbai.

After deciding to make a moving film, Savedada ordered a cine camera from London. When the cameras arrived, Savedada got the necessary technical information and portrayed the wrestling of two wrestlers, Pundalikdada and Krishna Nhavi, in Mumbai’s Hanging Gardens. It was processed from abroad. And at the Paris Theater in Mumbai at the end of 1899, a hundred years ago, it was 3 rupees. Stamped and displayed. Since this short film was made in India, it was such a big ticket and it was crowded. Savedada became the pioneer of Indian animated cinema. Later, Savedada also made short films like Monkey Games and Dombarya Games. 1901 Roller and. P. When Paranjape came home from abroad with the degree of Runler, Savedadani had made a documentary about his arrival and the hospitality that followed.

This is the first documentary made in India! Seeing this experiment of Savedad, Hirlal Sen and Jyotish Sarkar of Calcutta started trying to make a moving film. Details of Hiralal Sen’s efforts have been published in Calcutta’s 1939 magazine Deepali. Sen had bought a projector in 1896. In 1900, a photographer from a foreign company called Pathe came to India. Sen took photography lessons from them. In the short term he made his own camera and in 1903 came to Alibaba. He portrayed the dance part of Narendranath Banerjee and Kusumkumari in the popular play. In the same year, Savedada had painted the Delhi court of Emperor Edward. Such short films were being made in India.

Savedada has already been mentioned above. He wanted to make a film on Lord Krishna in his mind. He had also made preparations. His brothers were associates of Savedad. His sudden death did not interest Savedada, so he changed his mind to make a film and turned his camera to his technician-friendly A. P. Karandikar and V. P. Sold to Divekar.

Patankar, one of his technically friendly partners, decided to make the legendary film ‘Savitri’ together. This incident took place in the year 1912. The film was completed. What is special is that even though there were no women to work in drama and cinema at that time, he got Narmada Mande, a beautiful young woman from Ahmedabad, for the role of Savitri. There were many technical errors in this silent film and due to a scam in the processing, ‘Savitri’ could not be screened. Calcutta had also tried to make a film ‘Bilvamangal’ but the film remained unfinished due to capital

The incident took place in the year 1912. Shripad Sangeet Natak Mandali was a Hoshinatya Sanstha in Girgaum. Ramchandra Gopal and Dadasaheb Torne from Malvan, who worked for the Greaves Cotton Company in Mumbai, were acquainted with the theater. He wanted to shoot a play. This is real. 1906-07. Technology Mechanical-Technical difficulties caused three years to go by. After all the facilities became available, it was decided to shoot the play ‘Pundalik’ of this theater company. In 1909, after 3 years, filming started in Mangaldas Wadi, now the Naz Theater in Mumbai. Director of course Dadasaheb Torane! But
The director didn’t have much work. The characters in it are like a play
Taking and acting in front of the camera. The camera was stationary in one place.

After the filming was completed, ‘Pundalik’ was sent abroad for chemical treatment. The Coronation Theater of Nanasaheb Chitra was set up on Sadhurst Road in Mumbai, where Parekh Hospital is now, until the dawn of 1912 for this silent film. There, on May 18, 1912, ‘Pundalik’ flashed. At that time two foreign silent films were being shown during the week. But Pundalik lasted for 2 weeks. There was a lot of response from the audience, but due to the lack of distribution system in India at that time, ‘Pundalik’ was shown only in Mumbai, so it did not get as much publicity as it should have. Respect for the genius of Indian filmmaking as the technicians brought processing and printing on foreigners from London.

Dadasaheb Phalka was born on 30th April 1870, 29 km from Nashik. Trimbakeshwar became a pilgrimage site. His father Govind Sadashiv and Dajishastri were well versed in Vedas. He was in the business of begging. Since Dajishastri took up the profession of Puranika in the temple, along with Yajniki, Vaidyaki, Havyakavadi, Mahabharata, Ramayana, Bhagwat, Veda, Upanishad, etc., Dadasaheb was confronted with the constant companionship of his father. Dadasaheb’s childhood rites were reflected in his films.

Although Dajishastri was a keen scholar of Sanskrit, he was appointed as a professor of Sanskrit at Wilson College, Mumbai, though he was not a graduate. So the Phalke family moved to Mumbai. Dad wanted Dadasaheb to become a Sanskrit Pandit and continue his career. But Dadasaheb’s dream was to become a painter. He had a natural gift of painting. On Diwali, he used to make attractive rangolis, make artistic makhras in Gori Ganapati, and make beautiful decorations with great enthusiasm. Later, the charming idols of Sriganjanana also started doing it. Remember their passion He did not impose his will on Dadasaheb. J. Entered the School of Arts. He made his acting debut in the play ‘Snehasammelan’ of this organization. As an amateur artist, he had a great role in some plays on the amateur theater. J. of one year. J. He completed his painting course at the School of Arts.

After that Dadasaheb’s elder brother Shivrampant took Dadasaheb to Baroda Nelam and his name in the well-known Kalabhavan of Baroda. From there Dadasaheb was born with various arts developed. In 1890
Dadasaheb completed the course of Oil Painting B Water Color. Of creation He loved to paint scenes.

In the same year, Dadasaheb bought a photography camera how to take artistic photography? His photographs are just the tip of the iceberg
That’s it. He was learning by experimenting with processing and  printing on it. He was so engrossed in mastering art The replica of a theater was so beautiful and proportionat.

In 1892,Dadasaheb’ won gold medal at the Ahmedabad Industrial Exhibition Was awarded. Dadasaheb won such gold and silver medals Editing was done from time to time about his penetrating artwork.

The principal of Kalabhavan, Shri. Gajjar’s Harhunari is extraordinarily clever The students liked him so much that they gave him a photo studio of Kalabhavan And allowed the use of a chemistry school, then Dadasaheb in this work Day after day. He started his own Phalke photo studio Was. He wanted to make the work so high quality that it was a foreign job Photographer Mr. Rez could do the same. Dadasaheb by foreigners a heartfelt admiration for the artistry, ingenuity and skill of printing in photography was done.

Around the same time, Baroda College published a Sanskrit play ‘Veni Sanhar’ Responsibility entrusted to Dadasaheb. Teaching acting to artists, Calling them dialogues, apart from their costumes Dadasaheb did it, moreover, Dadasahebani did the prompting work. 

Dadasaheb also took classes in classical music at Maulabaksh Musical School. So he started doing kurtat. It includes acting, music, storytelling,
It’s time to paint. At that time, he also had the idea of ​​making a film in his mind Was not. But later on when he decided to do business, this art is useful to him Fell.

Dadasaheb had started his business as a photographer. The camera captures the power in the human body and in a few days the man
The misconception that he was dying spread there due to ignorance and Dadasaheb’s business Had to close. He returned to Baroda with a photography business Pvt. He wrote plays and plays by Shankar Moreshwar Ranade Complete information taken. Pvt. Ranadyani ‘Viters Tale’ and ‘Sibline’ He played the lead role in Shakespeare’s play.

In the play, Dadasaheb was skilled in costumes and costumes. Dadasaheb with a demonstration of how to act as an amateur artist.He also started giving education. An artist from an outside theater  Company will come at any time If not. Dadasaheb spent his time working instead In directing, writing, setting, if requested by the producer began to cooperate, even painting the curtains on time.  Mudrabhinaya should be A variety of foreign artists to let this emerging artist know deliberately put up posters in your photo studio was.

At that time a German magician had come to Baroda. New art editing
Dadasaheb wanted to do it. He befriended that magician He also acquired this art. Its use miracles to picture them (Trick Photographs). Dadasaheb publicly pro. Kelfa  (Phalke reversed the last name) experimenting. He also has a lot of popularity Was received. This is actually 1901.

Dadasaheb joined the government archeology department as he wanted some stability. He took a job as a shadow painter and draftsman. Them in this job He had to travel a lot, which was of great benefit to him. Of India They are rich in ancient splendor and ancient architecture
Perspectives were studied and they gained a new vision Done. They stunned so many temples, caves, ghats, rocks Consciously took photographs of the carvings and so on Dadasaheb’s art-loving mind did not work. Born in 1905 The disintegration movement had a profound effect on their patriotic minds Done. His job was stable but for this reason in 1906, four After a year, he resigned his job and became self-respecting, goal-oriented Manan pursued an independent industrial business. He also did the art of printing He had learned what he had learned from Baroda. Dadasaheb In Lonavla, Phalke founded Engravia and Printing Wars. 

Photo of great personalities like Lokmanya Tilak in ‘Rashtramat’ newspaper Becoming famous. Blocks of photographs of revolutionaries and national leaders and Because they dare to print, they are not afraid of being questioned from time to time Dadasaheb turned his attention to tricolor printing. Notice the increasing prevalence Dadasaheb moved his organization from Lonavla to Dadar Main Road. Purushottam Vishram got a rich partner named Mavji. New The printing press was renamed as ‘Lakshmi Art Printing Works’. In 1909, Dadasaheb went to Germany and learned the art of color printing came. He got the top position in the area where Dadasaheb went.

His excellent color printing is only in the Times of India press
Dadasaheb’s colorful impressions could have been made even by foreign magazines but Dadasaheb, who has an artistic vision, did not get along with his business partner. Dadasaheb was not tolerant of anyone. He left the partnership of Lakshmi Art Printing Workers one day without taking a single penny. Upon learning this, the rich Dadasaheb came with bags to open a new printing press. Dadasaheb made it clear to him that the business I was out of would not be competitive

Relatives and well-wishers tried to tell Dadasaheb a lot but he was answering them in the same way. Home. The situation was normal, they had broken up without any further plans. Dadasaheb Udvijan was in a state of mind. From here, his test period began and from that, Indian cinema was born!

Reading, watching plays was going on. I didn’t know what to do next. Rage used to take his son Bhalchandra (Babarai) for a walk in the evening. In a similar anxious state of mind, he went to Girangaon Back Road, where the Indo-American Tent Theater had started. Foreigners are probably showing American films there. Dadasaheb went to that theater to spend time. When he went home at night, Bhalchandra said to his mother, “Mom, we saw people walking on the screen today, animals, it was a lot of fun.”

Saraswati asked Dadasaheb, “What did you take him to show?” Dadasaheb said, “Do you want to see him? I’ll take you tomorrow. “The next day, Dadasaheb took Saraswatibaina to see a movie. Due to Easter, ‘The Life of Christ’, a film on the life of Jesus Christ, was being shown on that day. This is how our audience watches these western films, how will Indians as well as Westerners see our culture? That should happen. Film is the most effective medium.

We have as many mythological, historical, social, interesting and instructive stories as we want. If it comes on the screen, the audience can be properly nurtured. Giving the mantra of freedom. Will come. I mean, this business has to be indigenous. Someone has to do it.

While thinking, Dadasaheb thought, who will do it, so why should we wait? We will do it. This came to their mind but they started seeing Lord Krishna instead of Jesus and Yashoda instead of Mary. On her way home, Saraswati asked Dadasaheb, “How do these pictures move?”

Dadasaheb immediately exclaimed, “You will know all this automatically, because it is moving. We will start the painting business soon. We want to show Krishna instead of Christ, we want to show Shri Ram, Ayodhya, Gokul.

Hearing this, Saraswatibai became speechless. He 15. April 1911. It was a revolutionary day in the history of filmmaking. Saraswatibaina did not realize that there was no financial support nearby, Dadasaheb’s forties were turned upside down. How is this going to happen? But she did not say anything.

Dadasaheb Phalke was inspired by the idea of ​​making the film business indigenous. With that in mind, he started the industry. He bought a toy cinema and a few sets of films from an English company. By hand  brought from the fort at night by candlelight. The experiment of showing a movie on the wall by throwing it on the lens of a small projector started. Dadasaheb searched for photography and other shops in the fort to get a book on film techniques; But in vain! Finally, I found a book called ‘ABC Guide to Cinema’ at Nadkarni & Company in Dhobi Lake. There is a lot of information that will be useful in this book
Not received; However, Dadasaheb felt that this book was important because of the advertisements in it.

Besides watching movies on the wall at night, I also used to go to the cinema as a study and watch movies. So. He was getting more than three hours of sleep. This activity continued for many days, which put a lot of stress on my eyes. And Dadasaheb suddenly appeared. Now Shree is the Dadasaheb was very disappointed with the idea that the dream of making the film business indigenous would go away. Even though there was no star in the sky, their only prayer to the Lord was to make the house a lamp.

The Lord heard his prayers. Prabhakar was an ophthalmologist. He regained sight of Dadasaheb; But he advised Dadasaheb not to do anything that would cause eye strain. If the vision is gone now, it will be difficult to regain it.

How to keep Dadasaheb, who is obsessed with making film business indigenous, healthy? Started watching movies, plays, catalogs ordered from abroad, other readings. He was not in the mood to take anyone’s advice and it was not in his nature. They did not get well until the work was done, then they did not take care of the house or themselves. Phalakani himself has written that his well-wishers suspected that his head was affected and planned to send him to a lunatic asylum in Thane.

As Dadasaheb felt that he should go to London and acquire technical knowledge, he met the leaders of the Swadeshi movement, explained to them his plan and said that this film business must become Swadeshi. The culture of foreigners is seen by Indians in their films.

Not only should the brothers realize that the real Indian is ancient and noble, but foreigners also need to be introduced to Indian culture; Apart from that, I have to think that I am struggling to get many jobs in the film business gradually; But no matter how clever a person like Dadasaheb, who is in his forties, is not close enough, the technology is acquired only by reading, how will he compete with the experienced technicians? No one encouraged or responded to this thought, but the one who wants to complete his work does not get frustrated.

How to raise money if you want to go abroad to acquire technology? This was a big question for Dadasaheb. There was no possibility of getting financial help from anywhere. In January 1912, while talking to Nadkarni and company owner Yashwantrao Nadkarni, Dadasaheb told him the idea of ​​making indigenous films. He had respect for Dadasaheb’s ingenuity and skill in photography. Nadkarni was sure that if Dadasaheb took it to heart, he would be able to fulfill his dream.

Nadkani was ready to lend ten thousand rupees to Dadasaheb; But Dadasaheb had nothing to pledge. He then mortgaged an insurance policy of Rs 12,000 to Nadkarni and as soon as he got Rs 10,000, he started preparing to go to London. As soon as he understood this, the criticism started that ‘Dadasaheb is running after mirage’. When the money ran out, she had to beg for a living. I am ready to endure any calamity that may come. ‘ Saying this clearly, Saraswatibai silenced him. When all was said and done, on February 1, 1912, we set sail for London.

Dadasaheb was a vegetarian, so there was a question of food in London, but fortunately Mr. A Maharashtrian Muslim owner named Abdullah arranged a vegetarian meal for him at his hotel. When Dadasaheb told him his intention to come, the owner started respecting his elder brother.

The question of food was solved. Dadasaheb then started his work. In the Piccadilly Circus section of London, they saw the sign ‘Bioscope Cine Weekly’. Dadasaheb was a subscriber of that cinema weekly. That editor, Mr. Met Cape Burn. Cape Burn was delighted to meet its Indian subscriber. Dadasaheb explained his intention to come to London. After hearing that, Mr. Cape Burn advised Dadasaheb not to dare. According to him, many producers have failed in England and most of them are stagnant. Besides, the air in India is not conducive for the film

Dadasaheb said with restraint that from the study done in India
The air will have no effect on the film and the business is indigenous
My determination and confidence to overcome what will come
That is, on the technology that Dadasaheb got by reading books
Mr. Shad is the Discussed with Cape Burn.

Dadasaheb’s flamboyant personality, his way of speaking that will make an impression, he is a complete vegetarian and he is not addicted to smoking. Cape Burn had a very favorable opinion of him. Affected, Cape Burn promised to support Dadasaheb as much as possible. He did not stop there, but approached Cecil Hepworth, a well-known producer in Bolton, and asked him to guide the falcons to the best of his ability.

As a result, Cecil Hepburt, the manufacturer, drove himself to the train station. Hepburn also showed Dadasaheb all the accounts in the studio and how they worked, which even the English could not see. Hepburn called in artists and technicians to demonstrate how filming works.

Whose camera should Hepburn take for filming? This was advised and the film printing machine, as well as the edges of the film, did not have the holes as they do now. He also told me where and how to get the device. He also agreed to take a few shots to test the newly purchased camera. He also explained how to use the machinery. This visit of Phalakya was done by Mr. Capeburn mentions this in his May 28, 1914, issue of Bioscope.

Dadasaheb lived in London for two weeks. During that period, he saw the film ‘A Daughter of India’ made by London Selling Corporation. It was about Indian life. The heroine’s name was Mrs. Pandita and the heroine’s name was Mr. Ramabai. The dress of the heroine was boots, pajamas and padar on her head, while the dress of the heroine was phase cap and beard. Since Indians were disgraced in that film, any Indian would have been shocked to see this film.

Dadasaheb told Mr. about this film. Dissatisfied with Cape Bernanke, he said, “The missionaries seem to have a good idea about India and Indian culture and customs. Next year, I will come here with my Indian-made film that will give a real vision of India to the people here. ‘”

Dadasaheb returned to India on April 1, thanking Cape Burn and producer Cecil Hepburt. Before leaving, Kodak also ordered raw film from the company.

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